After the pulse, when the voltage returns to its steady-state value, the defects start to emit trapped carriers due to the thermal emission process.
The technique observes the device space charge region capacitance where the defect charge state recovery causes the capacitance transient. The voltage pulse followed by the defect charge state recovery are cycled allowing an application of different signal processing methods for defect recharging process analysis. The DLTS technique has a higher sensitivity than almost any other semiconductor diagnostic technique. For example, in silicon it can detect impurities and defects at a concentration of one part in 10 12 of the material host atoms.
This feature together with a technical simplicity of its design made it very popular in research labs and semiconductor material production factories. In conventional DLTS the capacitance transients are investigated by using a lock-in amplifier  or double box-car averaging technique when the sample temperature is slowly varied usually in a range from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature K or above.
The equipment reference frequency is the voltage pulse repetition rate. In the conventional DLTS method this frequency multiplied by some constant depending on the hardware used is called the "rate window". During the temperature scan, peaks appear when the emission rate of carriers from some defect equals the rate window. By setting up different rate windows in subsequent DLTS spectra measurements one obtains different temperatures at which some particular peak appears.
Having a set of the emission rate and corresponding temperature pairs one can make an Arrhenius plot , which allows for the deduction of defect activation energy for the thermal emission process. Usually this energy sometimes called the defect energy level together with the plot intercept value are defect parameters used for its identification or analysis. On samples with low free carrier density conductance transients have also been used for a DLTS analysis. In addition to the conventional temperature scan" DLTS, in which the temperature is swept while pulsing the device at a constant frequency, the temperature can be kept constant and sweep the pulsing frequency.
This technique is called the frequency scan DLTS. Frequency scan DLTS is specifically useful when an aggressive change in temperature might damage the device. An example when frequency scan is shown to be useful is for studying modern MOS devices with thin and sensitive gate oxides. Recently, DLTS has been used to study quantum dots and perovskite solar cells. Bismuth incorporation in GaAs produces a much larger reduction in the band gap than In or Sb alloying, for the same increase in lattice constant.
Similarly, DLTS spectra from the p-i-n devices vary with the growth conditions and the bismide fraction. The possible identity of some of the traps is discussed. Simon Fraser University. About Summit What is Summit?
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Simulations of Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy for 4H-SiC
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Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements of GaAsBi/GaAs
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